material, etc, are phonological and morphological processes with which reduplication is often used. So, the word ‘duplifix’ is used to indicate the reduplication and affixation are combined. In other languages, initial reduplication and gemination of the first consonant in the distributive plural and in repetitive verbs are also combined.
Reduplication is used in a number of languages to varying extents. It can be modified in two ways: as being a process or an addition. It is considered as a regular way of pluralizing the nouns. In Greek, for instance, there are different kinds of repetition in the structure of a word.”In historical linguistics, the term refers to the way a prefix/ suffix reflects certain phonological characteristics of a root”. The initial consonant of the base is copied in certain grammatical contexts, like perfective forms (Crystal, 1992).
In some languages, reduplication is described as a word- formation process by which a prefix is created by repeating the first consonant and vowel of a base. In a base, the vowel which is [+ length] becomes [- length] in the prefix in a systematic way (Falk, 1978). In addition, reduplication can also be used to refer to repetition, customary activity and frequency of an action or event which are found in verbs, the increase in size and addition of intensity which are used to refer to an argumentative meaning that reduplication has.
It also expresses plurality,distributivity (each X), continuous, habitual aspect, variety and similarity (all different kinds of X,X and such),’out of control’, in addition to different types of derivational meaning (for example, agentive nominal) (Katamba and Stonham, 2006).
The other usages mentioned by Hyman (1975) and Napoli, 1996) are: Nouns are derived from verbs; it is a reference to modality and aspect (perfective and progressive); and it refers to a type of S-V concord in certain persons and numbers. Hall (1964) indicated that reduplication is used when a speaker wants to produce expressive or figurative tone than ordinary speech. Reduplicated nouns are found in a language to refer to genuinely, completeness, originality and being uncomplicated as opposed to being fake, incomplete, complicated, or fussy. The functions of reduplication can be considered to be both rhetorical as well as cohesive. Content can be reiterated in a paraphrase form or alternative lexical forms (near -synonyms) and meaning is specific to the context in which the form is created (Wang, 2005).
2.2.1 Reduplication and Repetitions
Reduplication is a word formation process in which some part of a base (a segment, syllable, morpheme) is repeated, either to the left, or to the right of the word or, occasionally, within the middle of the word. While reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, its level of linguistic productivity varies and it is sometimes used interchangeably with repetition)wang,2005). Repetition is a term which is used to indicate sounds and concepts that are repeated in one form or the other to provide reinforcement and emotional emphasis. Persson, (1974) insists that repetitions in English can be distinguished at three linguistic levels which are a) lexical as in old, old view; b) syntactical as in God he knows; and c) semantic as in they deceived and hoodwinked us. Wang (2005) insists that there are fundamental differences between reduplication and repetition and that reduplication exists at the lexical level while repetition exists at the syntactical level.
2.2.2 Types of English reduplicative words
Several ways of classifying reduplication appear in the literature of many languages. Full and partial reduplications denote either that the whole base is repeated (full or total) or a part of it (partial). Both types are often used in many languages (Matthews, 1974). Likewise, pre-reduplication (pre-modification) and post- reduplication (post- modification), imply whether the repeated or copied element comes before or after the base (Haspelmath, 2002).
In English, and some other languages, reduplication is considered as a special case of affixes where there is a similarity between the affix and some part of its environment.
So, there are three types of reduplication:
a.prefixal or initial: the part before the base which is reduplicative formative is copied, i.e. it can be to the right of the reduplicant;
b. suffixal or final: the part after the base which is reduplicative formative is copied, i.e. it can be to the left of the reduplicant;
c. infixal can be internal. It is considered by Katamba (1993) and Katamba and Stonham (2006) as a morphological odd process whereby a copy of part of the base is inserted in the base as an infix.
Thus, reduplication is accomplished by the allomorphic variation which is used. Such types can also be applied to the complete reduplication. From the general pattern of the language, reduplication can be prefixal in one case and suffixal in another (Gleason (1961), Matthews (1974), Napoli (1996), Crystal (1992), Katamba( 2006), Urbunczy(2007).
Broselow and McCarthy (2009) also mentions three kinds of reduplication used in English mostly for the purpose of informal expressive vocabulary. Those types are non- productive, i.e., there is no new form, their parts are firmly fixed:
a. Rhyming reduplication
The examples are ‘claptrap’, ‘hockey- pockey’, ‘slim jim’, etc. Sometimes, a semantic component supports such a morphological tendency to reduplicate. For instance, the two parts of the compound word ‘walkie-talkie’ rhyme in addition to their independent meanings which are connected to each other, and reflect the connotations of the word.
b. Exact reduplication
The examples which are taken from the baby- talk are ‘bye- bye’, ‘choo- choo’, ‘pee- pee’, etc.
c. Ablaut reduplication
This type is exemplified in: ‘bric- a- brac’, ‘chit- chat’, ‘jibber- jabber’.One of the features which distinguishes this type from the others is that the vowel of the first part is approximately always high and front while that of the second is low and back.
Ghomeshi et al (2004) added other types of reduplication with different degrees of productivity in addition to the previous three ones mentioned by Broselow and McCarthy (2009):
d. Multiple partial reduplication
Is exemplified in: ‘hap- hap- happy’ (in song lyrics).
e. Depricative reduplication. The example is ‘table- shmable’.
f. Intensive reduplication: This type is used with adjectives, verbs,
Prepositions/ adverbs, pronouns and nouns:
1. You’re sick sick sick!
2. Let’s get out there and win win win!
3. Prices just keep going up up up.
4. All you think about is you you you.
5. It’s mine mine mine.
Concerning stress, it is either placed on each item, or it can be of strong-weak- strong stress pattern. A type of reduplication is used in some languages, which is ‘Expressive minor’. It is of seldom use, in which the first and last segments of the base are repeated or copied by the initial reduplicant (Wikipedia, 2009). It also gives a type of infixal reduplication. In ‘purple- ma- ple’ or ‘purpa- ma- ple’ (taken from purple), the word consists of two syllables where the slang- ‘ma-‘ infix is inserted between an initial open syllable and the reduplicative one. The first instance of the repeated syllable is decreased to become consonant- schwa.
Ghomeshi et al (2004) added another type which is contrastive reduplication. It is a phenomenon existing in colloquial English whereby the words and sometimes phrases are repeated.
2.3 Translation and reduplication
After the centuries of circular debates around literal and free translation, theoreticians in the 1950s and 1960s began to attempts more systematic analyses of translation. The new debate revolved around certain key linguistic issues. The most prominent of these issues were those of meaning and ‘equivalence’. Over the following twenty years many further attempts were made to define the nature of equivalence (Munday, 2001).
Newmark felt that the success of equivalent effect is ‘illusory ‘ and that ‘the conflict of loyalties ‘ the gap between emphasis on source and target language will always remain as the overriding problem in translation theory and practice(Newmark,1988). He suggested narrowing the gap by replacing the old terms with those of ‘semantic’ and ‘communicative’ translation:
Communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. Semantic translation attempts to render, as the closely as the semantic syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original (quoted in Munday 2001, p: 44).
This description of communicative translation resembles Nida’s dynamic equivalence in the effect it is trying to create on the TT reader, while semantic translation has similarities to Nida’s formal equivalence. However Newmark distances