to localize CSI that it would have the same effect as it had on the TL audience. Even in such cases when the translator succeeds to achieve this goal, other problems may arise. Davies warned that localization of a particular cultural entity may require additional modifications further in the text.
Translation strategy that goes beyond globalization or localization is named transformation by Davies. This strategy changes the content of the CSI used in the SL and may be defined as an alternation or distortion of the original.
According to Davies, the employment of transformation in translation can be influenced by a number of reasons. The modification of the content of SL text can be reasoned by the translator’s or editor’s evaluation of the target audience’s flexibility and expectations. In other cases, transformation may be used because the translator’s or editor’s willingness to wrestle with possible obscurity.
Davies noted that in certain cases it is rather difficult to draw the line between globalization, localization and transformation because it is not clear where the change of the content goes beyond the frames of localization and globalization. In other cases it becomes difficult to realize where explicitness goes beyond addition and could be considered transformation.
The last translation strategy named by Davies is called creation. Creation appears when translators have actually created CSIs not present in the original text. Creation may be employed by the translator due to a number of reasons.
Davies suggested that creation is used when translators presuppose that the original form would be too strange for the target readers. Creation may result from the intention of the translator to make CSI more transparent and comprehendible for the target audience.
However, while trying to make the translation more transparent the translator tends to simultaneously put efforts in order to retain at least some flavor of SL.
Finally, this strategy can be used in order to compensate for the loss of meaning in translation in other parts of the TT. Translation of CSI is a difficult task that has been reviewed by a number of scholars, whose theories fall under two approaches: naming two goals of the translator, i.e. retaining the strangeness of the foreign text or adapting it to the TL; and providing a list of translation procedures for dealing with individual CSIs.
1.7 Limitations of the study
Conducting this study which is done based on Davis’ translation strategies in translation of reduplicative words from English literature (novels and story books) into Persian provided some limitations for the researcher:
The most important problem refers to the limited related works to be used as the literature review so the scope of the study is supposed to be broadening in order to gather the literature review.
Another infuriating restriction which was faced during the research was the lack of original book access which forced the researcher to use the PDF version of the story. Moreover, many research papers were not easily found and the researcher also had to use man PDF versions.
1.8 Definition of key words
Reduplication: It is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word or a part of it is repeated (Hall, 1964)
Rhyming reduplication: It is a type of reduplication in which two words have the same rhyme ( Broselow and McCarthy, 2009).
Exact reduplication: Through this type of reduplication process that the words are repeated exactly ( Broselow and McCarthy, 2009).
Ablaut reduplication: It is another type of reduplication and one of the features which distinguishes this type from the others is that the vowel of the first part is approximately always high and front while that of the second is low and back (Minkova, 2002).
Review of Related Literature
2. Review of Related Literature
In the following literature review a complete definition of reduplication has been prepared to make readers understand this linguistic phenomenon better and in the next part different types of English reduplicative words have been classified with examples. Then in part 2.4 the translation strategies suitable for translation of reduplicative words are well explained. And finally works done on this area (translation of reduplicative words) in Iran and other countries have been introduced.
2.2 Reduplication definition
Reduplication is among the processes that commonly exist in English and some other languages, and it is one of six main kinds of grammatical processes mentioned by Sapir in addition to word- order, composition, affixation, internal modification of the radical or grammatical element and accentual differences. It is used with various forms to achieve various purposes: lexical, morphological, and grammatical (Dineen, 1967).
In the literature, there are other terms which are sometimes interchangeably with reduplication like ‘cloning, doublin, duplication, and repetition’ but the standard term is ‘reduplication’ . “Grammatical processes may either involve the modification of single form in some way, or the combination of more than one form” (Hall, 1964, p.135).
In this regard, prosodic morphology puts an emphasis on the phonological processes included in reduplication which differentiate the base (that is the fixed element) from the copied (repeated) form. The process and the meaning that it may have in any particular language are not connected in a natural way. Reduplication involves prosodic units (beginning with a phoneme and ending with a morpheme) or a word being repeated. In the same word, the whole or part of a base is repeated. So, it is a process of repetition (Dineen, 1967).
This process is called reduplication since the second word follows the first one to emphasize it. So, the second part cannot be said alone without the first one. It is regarded as a particular kind of grammatical formation or a non- concatenative morphological phenomenon, i.e. a series of units that are linked together whereby a new word is produced by repeating a morpheme accompanied by a change in a vowel or initial consonant.(Robins,1967).
The reduplicative compound which consists of at least two linguistic forms (parts, halves, that is the base and the element which is reduplicated is known as a reduplicant. It is not frequently written as a full- form but as RED or R. The reduplicant is most often copied one time only not more are ordered in a paradigmatic, i.e. non- suppletive morphological relation. The second form includes a segment or a sequence of segments that is derived by non- recursive repetition of the part of the first form (Verma and Krishnaswamy, 1989).
There are two different points of view regarding reduplication. The first point states that it is a process whereby phonological material is copied. That is the segmental content is repeated with various phonological constraints, Marantz (1982); McCarthy and Prince (1986) quoted in Ghomeshi et al, 2004). The second one explains that it is a process whereby a bundle of morpho-syntactic features are copied (Inkelas and Zoll 2005 qtd in ibid).
Reduplication is not syllable epenthesis (i.e. the insertion of extra consonant to the middle of the word) because the motivation beyond reduplication is morphological in that the birth of a new morpheme is the end product. While in epenthesis, there is no birth of a new morpheme, it is a matter of insertion. It is the same word and there is no new word produced (Lass, 1984).A focus has been put on the copying process in the various theories suggested by: Marantz, 1982; Yip, 1982; Clements, 1985; Broselow and McCarthy, 1983 quoted in Bao, 1990).
Katamba (1993 and 2006) considered reduplication as an affixation process which involves the addition of a free morpheme (not necessarily a bound morpheme) to the beginning, the end or within the base. In this regard, McCarthy (qtd in Katamba and Stonham 2006) noticed that reduplication is a special case of ordinary affixation morphology, where the affixes are phonologically underspecified, receiving their full phonetic expression by copying adjacent segments.
The dictionary does not provide us with the semantic, syntactic, morphological, and phonological properties of a morpheme, which are specified, but with the reduplicative morpheme, its semantic and syntactic properties are available in the dictionary while the phonological one is not complete. Within the literature of auto-segmental phonology, much attention is paid to reduplication, particularly the partial type.
Gemination is a process whereby consonants and vowels are doubled; it is sometimes regarded as a form of reduplication. Indicating various kinds of reduplication which have the same meaning is done by using the term ‘dupleme’ after ‘morpheme’. Similarly, deletion, and affixation of non- reduplication